Mongolian Yurts & the Traditional Felt-Making Process
Sheep’s wool offers amazing properties.
Nowhere can we think of a better example of wool’s many benefits than by looking at Mongolian yurts and the traditional felt that insulates the yurt against cold, harsh winters.
In this edition of the Groovy Yurts blog we’ll look at the traditional felt making process that goes into creating comfortable, sturdy yurts.
Why Sheep’s Wool Makes a Great Yurt
When processed as felt and used as a yurt (or “ger” as the Mongolian people call it) lining, the wool breathes and insulates the space with the varying temperatures of the summer.
Wool felt in a yurt can also accumulate a certain amount of humidity and give it back when it gets drier (an all-natural humidifier). In addition, Mongolian yurt felt made of sheep’s wool is a great acoustic insulator, which helps make the yurt very cozy.
The best part? These felts protect against almost all elements.
It’s naturally fire retardant and mold resistant and wards off wear and tear, while actively participating in the yurt’s strength.
Mongolians say that felt is the ger’s muscle.
It is certainly a fabulous product as the fibre is rapidly renewable and 100% biodegradable!
Wool Felt: Traditional Crafting in Mongolian Yurts
Felt is traditionally made by the nomads of Mongolia by cleaning the wool, beating it, carefully laying it out evenly, getting it wet, and finally, collecting it into a big roll pulled by a horse across the grassland.
This fun video describes it well:
The felt can become water resistant over time, partly from the lanolin and dirt, but mainly from the smoke produced by the open fire in the ger.
Open fires were commonly built in the yurts prior to using stoves with a chimney, which according to a few Mongolian elders, is the best improvement in 2000 years. We’ve been told that the older ‘waterproofed’ layers were then put on top of the yurt to protect from Mongolian rains.
Often the felt is mixed with cow or horsehair to improve strength. The only downsides to that material are that it is difficult to clean wool, and the felt will have a strong odor when wet. It also tends to fall apart over time if it is not felted well, or if it’s exposed to constant sunlight.
Groovy Yurts: Our Felt Is Made of 100% Mongolian Wool
The felts used for own yurts are made with a needle machine and 100% Mongolian wool. That means that your yurt comes with a story of the people who made it.
We previously bought yurt felt from the old state factory that uses old Soviet era machines in Ulaanbaatar.
We now source the felt for our yurts from the countryside, where a similar technique is used in Bataa’s province, but with newer machines. We love that the profit goes directly to this rural area.
This new felt is denser, much cleaner, more consistent, and somehow seems to offer better insulating properties with a similar thickness. The felt that we previously bought was definitely not waterproof.
You can make your own felt as demonstrated by the amazing Sustainable Sheep and Fiber Community of Northern Minnesota.
This community created a complete layer of decorated felt for their own yurt. This incredible work of art depicts the making of felt in Mongolia. The illustrations are made with different colours of wool and felted together using a wet tapestry inlay technique!
For more questions about the wonders of yurts and their many benefits, please do not hesitate to get in touch with us.
Photographs taken in 2002 in Bulgan Aimag, in the northern part of Mongolia (northwest of UlaanBaatar) by Dr. Michael Gervers Turkish Felts